SINCE THE PASSAGE of the 2018 Agricultural Improvement Act (“Farm Bill”), interest in the use of hemp in commercial animal feed has skyrocketed. The Farm Bill legalized growing hemp, but inclusion of hemp in animal feed remains under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and state regulatory programs for commercial animal feed. However, proponents of hemp in animal feed and products regulated as feed, such as treats, have lobbied state policymakers to consider legislation allowing in-state use of hemp as a feed ingredient before the completion of comprehensive scientific research at the national level to affirm the safety of hemp for animals, and before necessary review of the ingredient by the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine.
In September 2021, the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) published a position paper warning that bringing hemp products to market in animal feed through a patchwork of state laws could lead to inconsistent manufacturing guidelines, unsupported marketing claims across the country, and even restrict interstate and international markets for products. AAFCO urged states to work within the formal review and approval process of hemp and hemp byproducts for animal nutrition rather than bypassing these reviews to bring products to market sooner.
Concerned that AAFCO’s position on this issue was not resonating, on Feb. 9, AAFCO and 16 industry organizations cooperated to publish an open joint letter of concern urging state leaders and decision-makers in agriculture to support research and education to ensure the safe use of hemp as an animal feed ingredient, stating that “It is simply too soon to know whether hemp is safe for farm and ranch animals, as well as for our pets. Our goal is for more research to ensure the safety and well-being of the public, our animals and our agricultural industry.”
The letter’s signers understand the robust interest in supporting the hemp industry, but want agricultural leaders, lawmakers and industry participants to avoid supporting legal or administrative changes at the state level instead of working through the same defined regulatory pathways required for every other animal feed ingredient. Support of research through universities or private labs will help to ensure that the safety and utility of hemp can be fully understood before it is allowed for these commercial purposes.
The National Animal Supplement Council (NASC) was among the letter’s signers and supports AAFCO’s position that additional research on hemp and hemp byproducts is needed and that industry participants should assemble data and submit applications for approval through the established animal feed ingredient review process. While NASC does not believe hemp poses an undue risk in animals or people, we do support the established processes.
A potential consequence of acting at the state level rather than nationally is if state actions create individual requirements, say for labeling, this creates a burden for suppliers because it is simply not possible to label or segregate shipments for specific states. This will impact retailers when products they want to carry are not availaable in their state. National consistency is another of AAFCO’s strategic objectives that the NASC supports.
TUNE IN TO THE AKC’S NATIONAL AGILITY CHAMPIONSHIP
AIRING ON ESPN2
WHAT: The American Kennel Club joins with ESPN2 to bring you the National Agility Championship. See more than 1,300 dogs and their handlers tackle an obstacle course to be named the National Agility Champion in their respective jump height.
WHEN: Sunday, April 17th, 5 PM ET.
WHERE TO WATCH: Tune in to ESPN2. Check your local listings.
The American Kennel Club (AKC®), the world's largest dog registry and leading industry authority and advocate for dogs, is proud to announce its newest Public Education program, Bailey’s Book Club.
AKC’s Bailey’s Book Club program is designed to encourage children to read about and explore the deep bond between humans and canines. The Book Club program will collect and donate dog-related books and resources to children in need.
AKC will be donating all new or gently used books to Title 1 K-12 schools nationwide. Title 1 schools have federally supported programs that offer assistance to educationally and economically challenged children to help them receive a well-rounded and high-quality education.
“The bond between people and their dogs is really special and unique,” said Ashley Jacot, Director of Education. “We want to give back to the community by encouraging children to read more and encouraging them to learn about the history and importance of canine companions.”
Teachers and administrators in Title 1 schools can sign up to receive books. Individuals can mail books directly to the American Kennel Club or purchase from our Amazon wishlist and mail them to AKC. There will be additional donation centers at AKC Meet the Breeds events for people to donate books.
To learn more or get ideas regarding what kind of books we are looking for, visit https://www.akc.org/public-education/baileys-book-club/.
Congress announced the Members who will sit on the Conference Committee to reconcile the differences between H.R.4521 (COMPETES) and S.1260 (USICA). This brings the House version of the COMPETES Act, that contains a section with amendments to the Lacey Act that would cause harm to pet businesses and pet owners alike, one step closer to enactment. Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi’s office issued a list of the Democrats on the Committee, and U.S. Senate Republican leader Mitch McConnell released a list of the Republicans.
After both chambers passed differing bills addressing the same topic—overcoming competition challenges from China—this legislative session, a conference committee has been assembled to reconcile the differences between the measures. When compared to the Senate’s version of the COMPETES Act (originally S.1260, the U.S. Innovation and Competition Act (USICA)), the House version includes many added amendments that are unconnected to the original intent of the legislation.
While there are positive parts to H.R.4521 that are fully supported by the responsible pet care community, including pieces aimed at ocean shipping reform and preventing future pandemics, section 71102 of COMPETES contains provisions that would have a significant negative impact on thousands of pet businesses and millions of current and future pet owners. These amendments would:
- Prohibit animal species not previously imported in more than “minimal quantities” from being put on a new import-approved “whitelist” until reviewed. This would harm small pet businesses and their customers by imposing a costly and lengthy evaluation process on thousands of species that are sought as pets but don’t meet the minimal threshold.
- Allow use of an “emergency designation” to unilaterally ban a species from import into the U.S. essentially overnight without due process, public input, hearings or advance notice for certain injurious listings.
- Enable USFWS to regulate movement in the continental U.S. of species that are deemed injurious without consideration of their invasive threat risk in different climates or geographies. A species deemed injurious in any part of any state would be banned throughout the entire U.S. Federal oversight is redundant as state agencies already determine captive wildlife rules based on state-specific concerns.
If section 71102 were to remain and the bill is signed into law, it would stop importation of animals not on the federal government’s future “whitelist” of approved animals, shutting down small, mom and pop businesses like tropical fish and reptile specialty stores across all 50 states, and impacting tens of millions of current and future pet owners. Responsible businesses in the pet care community are dependent on the importation of non-native species to provide the wide variety of birds, non-native mammals, reptiles, fish, and amphibians as captively-raised companion animals.
The Pet Advocacy Network, along with a large group of pet- and non-pet-related businesses and trade groups have been actively advocating with lawmakers to strike section 71102 from the final bill. It is critical that the responsible pet care community engage in this fight by contacting the Representatives and Senators on the conference committee and urge them to NOT include language from Section 71102 in the final bill.
The Mentor man who pleaded guilty in December 2021 to killing his girlfriend’s dog was back in the Cuyahoga County Court of Common Pleas Ohio on Wednesday morning.
Phil Savelli was sentenced to 60 days in jail on three counts of cruelty to animals. After release from jail, Savelli was ordered by the judge to also serve three years on controlled probation.
Investigators with the Highland Heights Police Department said Savelli was caught on security video submerging the 10-month-old Yorkshire Terrier in a water-filled sink before putting the dog in the freezer more than once until she died.
“What would motivate a grown man to go out his way to inflict suffering on a four-pound defenseless puppy?” said Helga Semaj, CoCo’s owner.
Savelli then put the dog back in the bed where the girlfriend found her, according to police.
In Ohio, cruelty to animals is a felony punishable by a year in jail and up to a $2,500 fine.
Savelli did not offer an explanation as to why he killed CoCo but he did offer an apology to those affected by this incident.
“I am sorry for any undo stress and anguish that this has caused.” said “I love you all, I need to do better and I will do better.”
Savelli is not allowed to own a pet for an indefinite amount of time, according to the judge.
“If Phil can kill a tiny, defenseless puppy, what else is he capable of? Would you trust him along with your pets or children?” said Semaj.
Days ago, staff at a Colorado Springs, Colorado, zoo said goodbye to one of its longest residents, an Asiatic black bear named Honey. In a release, the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo said that the 29-year-old bear showed signs of a “sudden illness”, and after a thorough exam by veterinary staff, the difficult decision was made to humanely euthanize her later that night, following the discovering of “serious age-related” conditions.
Nearly 28 years ago, Honey and her sister Beezler, arrived at the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo. Courtney Rogers, the lead animal keeper for the sisters, said:
“I had walked by their exhibit for years, but until I met and started working with them a couple of years ago, I never realized how cool they were. Even though they were sisters and lived together all their lives, Honey and Beezler had very different personalities. We often described Honey as a ‘sweet old lady,’ but she could also be super assertive at times.”
According to the zoo, at the time of Honey’s passing, she was the oldest-known Asiatic black bear currently living in human care; she held that designation with her sibling.
Zookeepers are keeping a close eye on Honey’s sister to ensure that she adjusts to the loss. The zoo said, “Beezler spent time with Honey on her final day, even cleaning her paws off for her. This morning, Beezler came right over to keepers in the morning, and her behavior seemed normal.” For the coming days and weeks, Beezler will receive extra attention and special enrichment to help her through the loss of her sibling.
The zoo said:
Honey was a wonderful ambassador for her species, and she will be greatly missed.
An Arizona man faces animal cruelty charges after 183 dead dogs, rabbits, birds and other animals were found in a freezer, including some that were apparently frozen while alive, officials said.
Mohave county deputies and animal control officers found the animals in a garage freezer on 3 April after a woman reported that Michael Patrick Turland, 43, hadn’t returned snakes she’d lent him for breeding, the sheriff’s office said Thursday in a statement. The freezer was at a home that Turland previously rented in Golden Valley, a rural community in far western Arizona.
The frozen animals included dogs, turtles, lizards, birds, snakes, mice, rats and rabbits, the statement said. “Several of the animals appeared to have been frozen alive due to their body positioning.” The sheriff’s office said they were kept in a “large-sized chest freezer”.
The home’s owner reportedly discovered the frozen animals while cleaning after Turland and his wife vacated the property. The owner then contacted the woman who notified the sheriff’s office, the statement said.
Turland was arrested at the home Wednesday when deputies were told he had returned to the property, the office said.
“When interviewed, Turland eventually admitted to placing some of the animals in the freezer when they were still alive,”.
Court records didn’t list an attorney who could comment on behalf of Turland, who was arrested on 94 counts of animal cruelty.
Morris Animal Foundation has begun taking proposals for studies that are focusing on a curative treatment for osteosarcoma in Saint Bernard and other giant breeds. In memory of her late Saint Bernard who suffered from osteosarcoma, one donor partnered with Morris Animal Foundation through its Donor-Inspired Study program for this research. According to an organizational release, the goal is to find research that will ultimately lead to a curative treatment in giant-breed dogs with osteosarcoma to improve their survival and quality of life.
All requests for proposals will go through 2 phases. The first will grant seed funding to groups working on a treatment approach with a strong translational potential that can lead to a clinical impact. If successful, proposals will include new approaches that were never previously funded and require establishing technical merit and feasibility.1
All research projects must focus on Saint Bernard’s and other giant breeds in America for 18 months. According to the release, Morris Foundation could invite back any successful projects to compete in the second phase for a larger award, pending progress reviews. Any groups that submit a study targeting other breeds or geographic regions will not be considered nor will any that use laboratory animals.1
Applications will be reviewed by a scientific advisory board containing experts based on impact and scientific rigor. Applications are due to Morris Foundation by June 13, 2022, at 4:59 EST.
Visit www.morrisanimalfoundation.org for more information
Agility dogs lacking core strength from routine physical exercise and those participating in activities like flyball may be more susceptible to one of the most common canine knee injuries. That knee injury is a cranial cruciate ligament rupture, which is equivalent to an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear in humans. According to a research survey documenting activity and injury odds of more than 1,200 agility dogs, just about any physical exercise seems to lower the risk of rupturing the ligament, but some exercises seem to increase the risk. In addition, the size and shape of the dog -- and thereby certain breeds -- were also found to be at higher risk.
"Balance exercises, wobble boards, anything that improves the core strength of the dog seemed to lower the odds of a ligament tear," said Deb Sellon, a Washington State University veterinarian and lead author on the study published in BMC Veterinary Research. "We found fitness matters for dogs just like it does for people, and we haven't shown that before." Sellon is also the founder of the university's Agility Dog Health Network, which was accessed in the study. By using odds ratios, which is essentially a statistical risk assessment, Sellon and Denis Marcellin-Little, a veterinary orthopedic specialist with University of California, Davis, looked for trends in 1,262 agility dogs -- 260 that tore the ligament and 1,002 dogs that did not.
In addition to balance and core strengthening exercises activities like dock diving, barn hunt and scent work are associated with a decreased rate of ligament rupture, too. While regular activity, like swimming, playing fetch or frisbee, walking or running didn't increase the risk of injury, it didn't lower the odds either. Surprisingly, dogs that competed more frequently in agility events and competed at a higher level on more technically rigorous types of courses were less likely to rupture their cruciate ligaments. The only physical activities that increased the odds of injury were short walks or runs over hilly or flat terrain on a weekly basis, and many of those injuries were in dogs early in their agility career that lacked core strength from routine physical exercise or at times, rest days. Training or competing in the new and popular dog sport flyball was found to be the riskiest activity of all activities evaluated in the survey. Agility dogs that also engaged in the sport of flyball were nearly twice as likely to rupture the ligament as compared to other dogs. Nearly 12% of dogs reported to play flyball ruptured the ligament.
The survey confirmed some long-standing and well-accepted risk factors as well. In particular, female dogs spayed before the age of one were almost twice as likely to rupture the ligament compared to dogs that were spayed after their first birthday. Sellon said this is believed to reflect the importance of hormones in developing strong ligaments in young animals. Trends were also identified among certain breeds. Survey results indicated Australian shepherds and Labrador retrievers were more than twice as likely to rupture the ligament. Rottweilers and Australian cattle dogs were more than four times as likely to tear the ligament. Marcellin-Little speculates that could have something to do with the shape of the dog, and maybe its tail. "Larger dogs doing agility tend to be less balanced, so it is not surprising a Rottweiler or Australian Shepherd may be at a higher risk of a rupture compared to smaller breeds," he said. "The tail could also be a factor; the tail has been proven very important for cheetahs and you can imagine it has a role to play in the overall balance of the dog." Marcellin-Little said there is still a great deal of research that needs to be completed, but the survey gives veterinarians a place to start. "This research decreases uncertainty; it doesn't bring certainty, but this one study could provoke thoughts and help us look at potential research areas to target moving forward," he said. "That is the type of research that the Agility Dog Health Network is planning to support."
Dogs and cats may be exposed in their homes to a potentially toxic group of chemicals, with their discovery in the pets' stool being a sign of health issues for humans living with them, a new study shows. Called aromatic amines, the chemicals -- found in tobacco smoke and in dyes used in cosmetics, textiles, and plastics -- are known to cause cancer. Notably, the study revealed that tobacco smoke was not a major source of pet exposure, suggesting that the latter products were likely the main culprits. Led by researchers at NYU Grossman School of Medicine, the study identified eight types of aromatic amines in stool samples collected from dozens of dogs and cats. It also found traces of the chemicals in more than 38% of urine samples taken from a separate group of pets. "Our findings suggest that pets are coming into contact with aromatic amines that leach from products in their household environment," says study lead author Sridhar Chinthakindi, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow at NYU Langone Health. "As these substances have been tied to bladder, colorectal, and other forms of cancer, our results may help explain why so many dogs and cats develop such diseases."
He adds that the results suggest that, aside from such direct exposures, pets are likely indirectly exposed. For example, past research has shown that a common flea control medication called amitraz can be broken down into an aromatic amine called 2,6-dimethylaniline by microbes living in animals' digestive systems. This was the most common aromatic amine detected in the new study, accounting for almost 70 percent of those found in dogs and nearly 80 percent of those found in cats. The study authors' previous investigations have measured other hormone-disrupting chemicals, including phthalates, melamine, and bisphenols in pet urine. However, the new study, published online March 30 in the journal Environment International, is the first designed to explore pet exposure to aromatic amines in the household, according to Chinthakindi. For the investigation, the research team collected urine samples from 42 dogs and 21 cats living in private households, veterinary hospitals, and animal shelters in Albany, NY. They also collected fecal samples from another 77 pets living in the same region. They recorded all of the animals' ages, breeds, and sexes. Then, the research team analyzed the samples for evidence of 30 different kinds of aromatic amines and nicotine. Among the findings were that cats had at least triple the concentrations of aromatic amines in their urine as dogs, although the study authors say both greater exposure and differences in metabolism between the two species likely play a role in the concentrations of the chemicals found. Notably, cats do not break down many compounds as efficiently as dogs. The investigation also showed little difference in aromatic amine exposure between animals that lived at home compared with those that lived in a shelter or those that were staying at a veterinary hospital. According to Chinthakindi, this highlights how commonly these substances appear and how difficult they are to avoid.
"Since pets are smaller and more sensitive to toxins, they serve as excellent 'canaries in the coal mine' for assessing chemical risks to human health," says study senior author Kurunthachalam Kannan, PhD, a professor in the Department of Pediatrics at NYU Langone. "If they are getting exposed to toxins in our homes, then we had better take a closer look at our own exposure." Kannan, also a professor in NYU Langone's Center for Investigation of Environmental Hazards, cautions that it remains unclear what aromatic amine levels can be safely tolerated by pets, and so far, no limit has been set by regulatory organizations for their protection. He adds that the study authors next plan to explore the link between aromatic amine exposure and bladder, thyroid, and testicular cancer in pets. Funding for the study was provided by National Institutes of Health grant U2C ES026542. +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
The parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects up to one-third of the human population, experts say. Sometimes transmitted to humans from infected cat feces or litter, the protozoan can cause severe and even deadly illnesses in immunocompromised people and fetuses. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Infectious Diseases have discovered that common herbicides and some of their derivatives can kill the parasite when it infects human cells in a petri dish, without harming the cells themselves.
T. gondii infection usually occurs from eating undercooked contaminated meat, exposure to infected cat feces or mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy. The parasite causes mild or no symptoms in most people, but it can cause severe illnesses in immunocompromised people and birth defects in the fetuses of pregnant women. Current therapies have limitations, such as strong side effects and an inability to cross the placenta to treat the fetus. They also don't work well for chronic infections. Recently, scientists discovered that T. gondii expresses an enzyme (protoporphyrinogen oxidase, or PPO) that more closely resembles the plant version of the enzyme than the mammalian one. Plant PPO, which helps make an essential compound called heme, is the target of some common herbicides, including oxadiazon. Kerrick Rees, Zhicheng Dou and Daniel Whitehead wondered if these herbicides or their derivatives could kill not only weeds, but also T. gondii -- without harming human cells.
The researchers screened several herbicides for the ability to kill T. gondii that had infected human cells in a dish, finding that oxadiazon and a related compound, oxadiargyl, were the most effective. Then, they synthesized 18 derivatives of oxadiargyl that had different chemical groups at a certain region of the molecule, identifying some that were even more potent than the parent compound. In other experiments, the researchers confirmed that the herbicide derivatives work primarily by inhibiting PPO. Importantly, the compounds didn't harm human cells that hosted the parasites. Next, the researchers plan to test the most potent molecules in an animal model of T. gondii infection.
The authors acknowledge funding from the National Institutes of Health.
A silent killer lurks deep in the cells of nearly all horses. First infecting very young animals, equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) can lie dormant for years. It waits patiently in lymphatic and neurologic tissues, never hinting at its presence. Then one day—likely due to a stress event—the virus awakes.
Maybe the horse gets a mild fever or a runny nose. Often, nobody notices any clinical signs whatsoever. But on a microscopic level a war has started. The index horse—the one that sparks an outbreak—starts shedding millions of EHV-1 virus particles through respiratory secretions. With each snort, nasal drip, even breath, he sends pathogens into shared breathing spaces and onto walls, hay, bedding, equipment, and hands, clothes, and boots.
Highly contagious, EHV-1 primarily causes respiratory disease, but it can also trigger abortion and equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy (EHM)—the neurologic form characterized by ataxia (incoordination), weakness, paralysis, and/or incontinence.
Handlers can limit damage by establishing and enforcing a quarantine on the premises. Sometimes, only a handful of horses get caught up in the outbreak. But other times—especially when reaction time is slow or many horses are housed together—hundreds can be involved.
That’s what happened in the Valencia, Spain, epidemic last year when 18 horses died and more than 200 from dozens of European countries were locked down at the Sunshine Tour competition venue. In the following months cases popped up all over Europe and the U.S.
With each outbreak comes fear, anxiety, management challenges, grief over equine losses, and financial burden. But outbreaks also bring scientific opportunities.
“There’s research being done, and there’s new vaccine technology being developed,” says Gisela Hussey, DVM, MS, PhD, associate professor of pathobiology and diagnostic investigation at the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine, in East Lansing. “So, there’s hope on the horizon.”
With each passing year, researchers learn more about laminitis in horses, specifically the influences of endocrine irregularities on the development of the disease. Endocrinopathic laminitis is associated with pars pituitary intermedia dysfunction, metabolic syndrome, and insulin dysregulation. But veterinarians—with their frantic, often relentless, schedules—may find it impossible to stay informed of every nuance discovered by researchers. A recent study evaluated how vets diagnose endocrinopathic laminitis in the field, looking closely at whether new research findings are used.*
For this study, researchers at Louisiana State University created an online questionnaire that featured two sections: (1) four demographic questions centered on the education and professional lives of the respondents, and (2) 14 questions that pertained to cases in which systemic laminitis was suspected but with no clinical signs of illness. A link to the survey ran for three months in an equine-specific veterinary e-newsletter, and the survey was posted on two social media sites during the same timeframe. Researchers collected 214 usable responses: 142 from equine-only ambulatory or referral hospital vets, 58 mixed-practice vets, and 14 other vets (academia, research, racetrack work, etc.). How frequently did these vets evaluate cases of laminitis each week? Just over half (55%) estimated they saw less than one case per week, while 28% guessed they evaluated one case a week. The remainder assessed more than one case per week.
Depending on their age, many practitioners indicated they have changed their diagnostic approach since graduating from veterinary school, including greater use of diagnostic testing for underlying endocrine or metabolic disease. Ninety-three percent of respondents reported running one or more diagnostic tests in suspected cases of laminitis. Veterinarians measured basal adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) more frequently than basal insulin, and dynamic tests of ACTH and insulin were more likely to occur on reexamination as opposed to first call. In addition to ACTH and insulin measurement, other tests were performed less frequently, including venography and measurement of serum amyloid A, leptin, thyroxine, glucose, and iron. When asked about the factors that influenced changes in diagnostic approach, respondents indicated personal experience, continuing education activities, and evidence-based medicine or research.
According to the researchers, “diagnosis of endocrinopathy was reported to be important to outcomes and treatment strategies, and improved discussions with owners about management and prognosis.” Horses diagnosed with endocrinopathic laminitis must often receive care from multiple specialists, including vets, farriers, and nutritionists. From a day-to-day management perspective, nutritional countermeasures may help keep horses from developing more severe disease or flare-ups.
Dietary management often focuses on restricting intake of nonstructural carbohydrates, namely sugars, starches, and fructans,” said Kathleen Crandell, Ph.D., a nutritionist with Kentucky Equine Research. “The consumption of these particular carbohydrates can increase the risk of laminitis through hyperinsulinemia or hindgut disturbances in laminitis-prone horses.” Horses with metabolic conditions are often fed diets composed of carefully selected forages. All-forage diets do not provide all of the vitamins and minerals necessary for optimal health. Consider a high-quality vitamin and mineral supplement to round out the diet. If faced with a laminitic horse and you’re unsure where to turn in terms of nutritional advice, consult a nutritionist.
The ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) and the North Carolina State University (NC State) Libraries have fulfilled a 3-year, grant-funded project to digitize the ASPCA Historical Archive. This project is a curated portfolio of over 150,000 pages of archival material (ie, annual reports, journals, scrapbooks, photos, and publications) that offer a timeline of the work and impact of the ASPCA since its initiation on April 10, 1866.
"Since the ASPCA's inception 156 years ago, education has been one of the primary means of fulfilling our mission to prevent cruelty towards animals, and we are pleased to provide unprecedented access to our archives to shed light on the development of the modern animal protection and humane movements in the United States," said Matt Bershadker, ASPCA president and CEO, in an organizational release.1
"The ASPCA Historical Archive highlights groundbreaking achievements to save and improve the lives of animals across the country and we hope it will be an invaluable resource for animal welfare rescuers, advocates, and scholars. We thank the NC State University Libraries for their partnership on this exciting project, which offers a comprehensive look at the history of progress and innovation in the fight against animal cruelty,” he added.
According to the release,1 the ASPCA currently strives to help animals in need with direct medical care, on-the-ground disaster and cruelty interventions, behavioral rehabilitation, animal placement, legal and legislative advocacy, and the development of the sheltering and veterinary community. These areas are connected directly to the ASPCA’s extensive history and mission displayed in the archive, which showcases the continual need of the organization’s evolution and strategies to help animals in need during the challenges of each documented time period.
"Thanks to the support and collaboration from the ASPCA, the Special Collections team at NC State University Libraries has successfully digitized and described a sizable portion of the ASPCA's historical archives," said Gwynn Thayer, the interim department head of the special collections research center, in the release.1
"We are thrilled to host these digitized assets on the website; these historical materials will be enormously beneficial to scholars of animal studies and animal protection around the world,”.